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Steven Raphael

Professor of Public Policy

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Contact Information

School Address:

Richard & Rhoda Goldman School of Public Policy

University of California, Berkeley

2607 Hearst Avenue

Berkeley, CA 94720-7320

tel: (510) 643-0536

fax: (510) 643-9657

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Curriculum Vitae

 

Academic Appointments

  • Assistant Professor of Economics, University of California, San Diego, 1996-1999
  • Assistant Professor of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley, 1999 to 2002
  • Associate Professor of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley. 2002 to 2006
  • Associate Dean, Goldman School of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley, 2003 to 2006
  • Chancellors Professor, University of California, Berkeley, 2002 to 2007
  • Professor of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley, 2006 to present
  • Associate Dean, 2008 (July through December)
  • Interim Dean, 2009 (January through July)

Other Appointments

  • Research Affiliate, National Poverty Center, University of Michigan, 2004 to present
  • Co-director and Co-principal investigator of the Berkeley Integrated Graduate Education, Research, and Training (IGERT) Program in Politics, Economics, Psychology, and Public Policy, 2005 to present
  • Research Fellow, IZA - Institute for the Study of Labor, Bonn Germany, 2009 to present
  • Research Fellow, University of Chicago Crime Lab, 2010 to Present
  • Visiting Research Scholar, San Francisco Federal Reserve Bank, 2011 to 2012
  • Adjunct Research Fellow, Public Policy Institute of California, 2011 to present
  • Member of expert panel on inmate security classification, California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, 2011
  • Evaluator of corrections realignment reforms, Office of the California Attorney General, 2012
  • Appointed Member, San Francisco Sentencing Commission, 2012 through 2015

Education

  • Ph.D. Department of Economics, University if California, Berkeley, May 1996
  • B.A. Degree in Economics, San Diego State University, January 1990

Books and edited volumes

  • Raphael, Steven, forthcoming The New Scarlet Letter? Negotiating the U.S. Labor Market with a Criminal Record, Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, Kalamazoo, Michigan.
  • Raphael, Steven and Michael Stoll, Why Are So Many Americans in Prison?, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, NY. Book Webpage
  • Card, David and Steven Raphael (eds), Immigration, Poverty, and Socioeconomic Inequality, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, NY. Book Webpage
  • Raphael, Steven and Michael Stoll (eds) (2009), Do Prisons Make Us Safer? The Benefits and Costs of the Prison Boom, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, NY. Book Webpage

Publications

  • Lofstrom, Magnus and Steven Raphael (2013), Public Safety Realignment and Crime Rates in California, Public Policy Institute of California, San Francisco, CA. PDF File
  • Buonanno, Paolo and Steven Raphael, forthcoming, "Incarceration and Incapacitation: Evidence from the 2006 Italian Collective Pardon," American Economic Review. PDF File
  • Bohn Sarah; Lofstrom, Magnus and Steven Raphael, forthcoming "The Effects of State-Level Legislation Targeted Towards Limiting the Employment of Undocumented Immigrants on the Internal Composition of State Populations: The Case of Arizona," Review of Economics and Statistics. PDF File
  • Lofstrom, Magnus and Steven Raphael (2013), Impact of Realignment on California Jail Populations, Public Policy Institute of California, San Francisco, CA.  PDF File
  • Raphael, Steven (2013), "International Migration, Sex Ratios, and the Socioeconomic Outcomes of Non-Migrant Mexican Women," Demography, 50(3): 971-991. PDF File
  • Raphael, Steven and Michael Stoll (2013) "Assessing the Contribution of the Deinstitutionalization of the Mentally Ill to Growth in the U.S. Incarceration Rate," Journal of Legal Studies, 42(1): 187-222 PDF File
  • Hamilton, Candace; Meyer, Chris and Steven Raphael (2012), "The Evolution of Gender Employment Differentials within Racial Groups in the United States," Journal of Legal Studies, 41(2): 385-418. PDF File
  • Johnson, Rucker and Steven Raphael (2012) "How Much Crime Reduction Does the Marginal Prisoner Buy" Journal of Law and Economics, 55(2) 275-310. PDF File
  • Chalfin, Aaron; Haviland, Amelia; and Steven Raphael (2012), "What Do Panel Studies Tell Us About a Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment? A Critique of the Literature," Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 25: 1-39. PDF File
  • Chalfin, Aaron and Steven Raphael (2011), "Work and Crime," in Michael Tonry (ed.), The Oxford Handook of Crime and Criminal Justice, Oxford University Press, pp. 444-476.
  • Kneebone, Elizabeth and Steven Raphael (2011), City and Suburban Crime Trends in Metropolitan America, with Elizabeth Kneebone, The Brooking Institution, Washington D.C.
  • Raphael, Steven and Michael Stoll (2011), "Neighborhoods, Social Interactions, and Crime," in (Newburger, Harriet B.; Birch, L. Eugenie and Susan M. Wachter (eds.) Neighborhood and Life Chances, University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia, PA pp. 73-88.
  • Bohn, Sarah; Lofstrom, Magnus and Steven Raphael (2011), Lessons from the 2007 Legal Arizona Workers Act, Public Policy Institute of California: San Francisco, CA.
  • Raphael, Steven (2011) "Incarceration and Prisoner Reentry in the U.S." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 635: 192-215.
  • Raphael, Steven (2011), "Improving Employment Prospects for Former Prison Inmates: Challenges and Policy," in Cook, Phillip J.; Ludwig, Jens and Justin McCrary (eds.) Controlling Crime: Strategies and Tradeoffs, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Il: pp 521-572.
  • Ludwig, Jens and Steven Raphael (2010), The Mobility Bank: Increasing Residential Mobility to Boost Economic Mobility, A Hamilton Project Paper, The Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C.
  • Raphael, Steven and Michael Stoll (2010), Job Sprawl and the Suburbanization of Poverty, The Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C.
  • Raphael, Steven (2010) "The Causes and Labor Market Consequences of the Steep Increase in U.S. Incarceration Rates," in Brown, Clair; Eichengreen, Barry and Michael Reich (eds) Labor in the Era of Globalization, Cambridge University Press.375-413.
  • Raphael, Steven (2010), "Homelessness and Housing Market Regulation," in Gould-Ellen, Ingrid and Brendan O'Flaherty (eds.), How to House the Homeless, Russell Sage Foundation, pp 110-135.
  • Raphael, Steven and Eugene Smolensky (2009), "Immigration and Poverty in the United States," in Cancian, Maria and Sheldon Danziger (eds), Changing Poverty, Changing Policies, Russell Sage Foundation, NY, pp122-150.
  • Raphael, Steven (2009), "The Impact of Incarceration on the Employment Outcomes of Former Inmates: Policy Options for Fostering Self-Sufficiency and an Assessment of the Cost-Effectiveness of Current Corrections Policy," in Heinrich, Carolyn J., and Karl Sholz (eds) Making the Work-Based Safety Net Work Better: Forward Looking Policies to Help Low-Income Families, Russell Sage Foundation, NY, pp185-226.
  • Johnson, Rucker and Steven Raphael (2009) "The Effect of Male Incarceration Dynamics on AIDS Infection Rates Among African-American Women and Men," Journal of Law and Economics, 52(2):251-293.
  • Raphael, Steven and Michael Stoll (2009), "Why Are So Many Americans in Prison?" in Raphael, Steven and Michael Stoll (eds.) Do Prisons Make Us Safer? The Benefits and Costs of the Prison Boom, Russell Sage Foundation, New York.
  • Bansak, Cynthia and Steven Raphael (2009), "The State Children's Health Insurance Program and Job Mobility: Identifying Job-Lock Among Working Parents in Near Poor Households," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 61(4): 564-579.
  • Quigley, John and Steven Raphael (2008) "Neighborhoods, Economic Self-Sufficiency, and the MTO Program" in Burtless, Gary and Janet Rothenberg Pack (eds), The Brookings Wharton Papers on Urban Economic Affairs The Brookings Institution: Washington.
  • Raphael, Steven and Lucas Ronconi (2007) "The Effects of Labor Market Competition with Immigrants on the Wages and Employment of Natives: What Does Existing Research Tell Us?" DuBois Review: Social Science Research on Race, 4(2): 413-432 (2007).
  • Berube, Alan; Deakin, Elizabeth, and Steven Raphael (2007) "Socioeconomic Differences in Household Automobile Ownership Rates: Implications for Evacuation Policy," in Quigley, John and Rosenthal Larry (eds) Risking House and Home: Disasters, Cities and Public Policy, Berkeley Public Policy Press: Berkeley, CA pp197-222.
  • Raphael, Steven (2007) "Boosting the Earnings and Employment of Low-Skilled Workers in the United States: Making Work Pay and Reducing Barriers to Employment and Social Mobility" in Bartik, Timothy J. and Susan M Houseman (eds.) A Future of Good Jobs? America's Challenge in the Global Economy, W. E. Upjohn Institute, Kalamazoo, MI, pp 245-305.
  • Raphael, Steven (2007) "Early Incarceration Spells and the Transition to Adulthood," in Danziger, Sheldon and Cecilia Elena Rouse (eds) The Price of Independence: The Economics of Early Adulthood, Russell Sage Foundation: New York pp. 278-306.
  • Amuedo-Dorante, Catalina; Bansak, Cynthia and Steven Raphael (2007) "Gender Differences in the Labor Market Impact of IRCA," American Economic Review, 412-416.
  • Holzer, Harry; Raphael, Steven and Michael Stoll (2007) "The Effect of an Applicant's Criminal History on Employer Hiring Decisions and Screening Practices: Evidene from Los Angeles," in Bushway, Shawn; Stoll, Michael and David Weiman (ed.) Barriers to Reentry? The Labor Market for Released Prisoners in Post-Industrial America, Russell Sage Foundation: New York.
  • Raphael, Steven and David Weiman (2007) "The Impact of Local Labor Market Conditions on the Likelihood That Parolees are Returned to Custody," in Bushway, Shawn; Stoll, Michael and David Weiman (ed.) Barriers to Reentry? The Labor Market for Released Prisoners in Post-Industrial America, Russell Sage Foundation: New York.
  • Bansak, Cynthia and Steven Raphael (2006) "Have Employment Relationships in the United States Become Less Stable?" International Advances in Economic Research, 12(3): 342-357.
  • Bansak, Cynthia and Steven Raphael (2006), "The Effect of State Policy Design Features on Take Up and Crowd Out Rates for the State Children's Health Insurance Program," Journal of Policy Analysis & Management, 26(1): 149-175.
  • Raphael, Steven (2006), "The Deterrence Effects of California's Proposition 8: Weighing the Evidence," Criminology and Public Policy 5(3):471-478.
  • Raphael, Steven (2006), "Should Criminal History Records be Universally Available?" Criminology and Public Policy, 5(3): 512-522.
  • Holzer, Harry; Raphael, Steven and Michael Stoll (2006), "How Do Crime and Incarceration Affect the Employment Prospects of Less Educated Black Men?" in Ronald Mincy (ed.) Black Males Left Behind, The Urban Institute: Washington, D.C. (2006).
  • Raphael, Steven and Michael Stoll (2006), "Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Massachusetts Workforce Development Program Using No-Shows as a Non-Experimental Control Group," Evaluation Review, 30: 379-429 (2006).
  • Raphael, Steven (2006), "The Socioeconomic Status of Black Males: The Increasing Importance of Incarceration," in Auerbach, Alan; Card, David, and John Quigley (eds.), Poverty, the Distribution of Income, and Public Policy, Russell Sage Foundation: New York.
  • Holzer, Harry; Raphael, Steven and Michael Stoll (2006), "Perceived Criminality, Criminal Background Checks and the Racial Hiring Practices of Employers," Journal of Law and Economics, 49(2): 451-480.
  • Holzer, Harry; Raphael, Steven and Michael Stoll (2006), "₦not;œEmployers in the Boom: How Did the Hiring of Less-Skilled Workers Change During the 1990s?" Review of Economics and Statistics, 88(2): 283-299 (2006).
  • Raphael, Steven and Melissa Sills (2005), "Urban Crime in the United States," in Richard Arnott and Dan McMillen (eds.) A Companion to Urban Economics, Blackwell Publishing.
  • Quigley, John and Steven Raphael (2005), "Regulation and the High Cost of Housing in California," American Economic Review, 95(2): 323-328.
  • Raphael, Steven and Rudolf Winter-Ebmer (2005) "Identifying the Effect of Unemployment on Crime," (reprinted from Journal of Law and Economics, 44(1): 259-284 (2001)) Ehrlich, Isaac, and Zhiqiang Liu (eds.), The Economics of Crime, Edward Elgar Publishing, UK.
  • Greulick, Erica, Quigley, John and Steven Raphael (2004), "The Anatomy of Rent Burdens: Immigration, Growth, and Rental Housing," in William G. Gale and Janet Rothenberg Pack (eds), The Brookings ₦not;‘Wharton Papers on Urban Economic Affairs, Volume 5 The Brookings Institution: Washington.
  • Raphael, Steven and Michael Stoll (2004), "The Effect of Prison Releases on Regional Crime Rates," with Michael Stoll, in William G. Gale and Janet Rothenberg Pack (eds), The Brookings ₦not;˜Wharton Papers on Urban Economic Affairs, Volume 5, The Brookings Institution: Washington.
  • Quigley, John and Steven Raphael (2004), "Is Housing Unaffordable? Why Isn't It More Affordable?" Journal of Economic Perspectives, 18(1): 191-214.
  • Quigley, John; Raphael, Steven and Larry Rosenthal (2004), "₦not;œLocal Land Use Controls and Demographic Outcomes in a Booming Economy," Urban Studies, 41(2): 389-421.
  • Neuhauser, Frank and Steven Raphael (2004), "The Effect of an Increase in Worker's Compensation Benefits on the Duration and Frequency of Benefit Receipt," Review of Economics and Statistics, 86(1): 288-302.
  • Holzer, Harry; Raphael, Steven and Michael Stoll (2004), "Back Job Applicants and the Hiring Officer’s Race," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 57(2): 267-287.
  • Holzer, Harry; Raphael, Steven and Michael Stoll (2004), "Will Employers Hire Ex-Offenders? Employer Preferences, Background Checks, and Their Determinants," in Mary Patillo-McCoy, David Weiman, and Bruce Western (eds.), The Impact of Incarceration on Families and Communities, Russell Sage Foundation: New York, NY.
  • Holzer, Harry; Quigley, John and Steven Raphael (2003), "Public Transit and the Spatial Distribution of Minority Employment: Evidence from a Natural Experiment," Journal of Policy Analysis & Management, 22(3): 415-442.
  • Brooks, Richard and Steven Raphael (2003) "Life Terms or Death Sentences: The Uneasy Relationship Between Judicial Elections and Capital Punishment," Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 92(3-4): 609-640.
  • Ludwig, Jens and Steven Raphael (2003) "Prison Sentence Enhancements: The Case of Project Exile," in Ludwig, Jens and Philip J. Cook (eds), Evaluating Gun Policy: Effects on Crime and Violence, Brookings Institution Press: Washington, D.C.
  • Raphael, Steven (2002), "The Anatomy of the '“Anatomy of Racial Inequality'," Journal of Economic Literature, 40(4): 1202-1214.
  • Raphael, Steven and Michael Stoll (2002), Modest Progress: The Narrowing Spatial Mismatch Between Blacks and Jobs in the 1990s, The Brookings Institution: Washington, D.C.
  • Bansak, Cynthia and Steven Raphael (2002) "₦not;œImmigration Reform and the Earnings of Latino Workers: Do Employer Sanctions Cause Discrimination?," (reprinted from Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 54(2): 275-295, (2001)) Immigration and National Law Review, 22.
  • Raphael, Steven and Lorien Rice (2002) "Car Ownership, Employment, and Earnings," Journal of Urban Economics, 52: 109-130.
  • Mansur, Erin; Quigley, John; Raphael, Steven and Eugene Smolensky (2002) "Examining Policies to Reduce Homelessness Using a General Equilibrium Model of the Housing Market," Journal of Urban Economics, 52: 316-340.
  • Quigley, John; Raphael, Steven and Eugene Smolensky (2001) Homelessness in California, Public Policy Institute of California Monograph Series, San Francisco: CA.
  • Quigley, John and Steven Raphael (2001), "The Economics of Homelessness: A View from North America," European Journal of Housing Policy, 1(3): 323-336.
  • Raphael, Steven and Michael Stoll (2001) "Can Boosting Minority Car-Ownership Rates Narrow Inter-Racial Employment Gaps?," in William G. Gale and Janet Rothenberg Pack (eds), The Brookings Wharton Papers on Urban Economic Affairs, volume 2, The Brookings Institution: Washington, DC: pp 99-145.
  • Gaviria, Alejandro and Steven Raphael (2001), "School-Based Peer Effects and Juvenile Behavior," Review of Economics and Statistics, 83(2): 257-268.
  • Raphael, Steven and Rudof Winter-Ebmer (2001), "Identifying the Effect of Unemployment on Crime," Journal of Law and Economics, 44(1): 259-284.
  • Quigley, John; Raphael, Steven and Eugene Smolensky (2001), "Homeless in America: Homeless in California," Review of Economics and Statistics, 83(1): 37-51.
  • Brown, Clair; Campbell, Ben and Steven Raphael (2001), "High-Tech Industries in California: Panacea or Problem?"in Ong, Paul and James Lincoln (eds.) The State of California Labor, Institute of Industrial Relations, Berkeley: CA, pp. 149-160.
  • Bansak, Cynthia and Steven Raphael (2001), "Immigration Reform and the Earnings of Latino Workers: Do Employer Sanctions Cause Discrimination?," Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 54(2): 275-295.
  • Holzer, Harry; Raphael, Steven and Michael Stoll (2000) "Are Suburban Firms More Likely to Discriminate Against African-Americans?," Journal of Urban Economics, 48(3): 485-508.
  • Raphael, Steven and Michael Stoll (2000) "Racial Differences in Spatial Job Search Patterns: Exploring the Causes and Consequences," Economic Geography, 76(3): 201-223.
  • Raphael, Steven (2000), "Estimating the Union Earnings Effect Using a Sample of Displaced Workers," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 53(3): 503-521.
  • Raphael, Steven and David Riker (1999), "Geographic Mobility, Race, and Wage Discrimination," Journal of Urban Economics, 45(1): 17-46.
  • Raphael, Steven (1998), "Inter and Intra-Ethnic Comparisons of the Central City-Suburban Youth Employment Differential: Evidence from the Oakland Metropolitan Area," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 51(3): 505-524.
  • Raphael, Steven (1998) "Intervening Opportunities, Competing Searchers, and the Intra-Metropolitan Flow of Male Youth Labor," Journal of Regional Science, 38(1): 43-59.
  • Raphael, Steven (1998), "The Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis of Black Youth Joblessness: Evidence from the San Francisco Bay Area," Journal of Urban Economics, 43(1): 79-111.

Working Papers

  • Lofstrom, Magnus and Steven Raphael (2013), "Incarceration and Crime: Evidence from California's Realignment Sentencing Reform,"  PDF File.

Work in Progress

  • "Mandatory Minimum Penalties and Allocative Inefficiency"
  • "Realignment and Criminal Recidivism." 

Grants

  • Russell Sage Foundation Presidential Grant, "The Labor Market Consequences of an Extension of the San Francisco Bay Area's Commuter Rail System," 1997.
  • National Science Foundation grant SBR-9709197, "A Proposal to Evaluate the Labor Market Consequences of an Extension of the San Francisco Bay Area's Commuter Rail System," 1997-1999.
  • American Compensation Association Emerging Scholars Research Grant, "Changes in Employment Stability: 1986-1993," 1998.
  • Joint Center for Poverty Research Small Grant Program, "The Effects of Automobile Access on Labor Market Outcomes," 1999-2000.
  • Russell Sage Foundation Research Grant, "Assessing the Effects of State Prison Sentences on Post-Release Employment and Earnings," 2000-2001.
  • Grant from the California Commission on Health and Safety and Workers' Compensation to analyze the utilization effects of workers' compensation benefits increases, 2000-2001.
  • Russell Sage Foundation Research Grant (co-principal investigator with Michael Stoll), "The Determinants and Consequences of Employer-Initiated Criminal Background Checks," 2001-2002.
  • Robert Woods Johnson Foundation, "A Proposal to Evaluate the Impact of the State Children's Health Insurance Programs on Coverage Rates, Private Sector Crowd-Out, and the Employment Outcomes of Parents in Near-Poor Families," 2003-2004.
  • National Science Foundation Integrated Graduated Education Research and Training Program in Politics, Economics, Psychology and Public Policy, co-principal investigator, 2005-2012.
  • Russel Sage Foundation, "The Costs and Consequences of U.S. Incarceration Policy," with Michael Stoll, 2006-2007.
  • Fundacion BBVA, "Sex Ratios, Marriage, and International Migration: Are the Standards of Young Mexican Women Declining Due to the Scarcity of Men," 2008-2009.
  • Russell Sage Foundation, "Why are So Many Americans in Prison," 2008-2009.
  • National Science Foundation, "Estimating the Incapacitation Effects of Prison: Evaluation of the Natural Experiment Created by the 2006 Italian Collective Clemency Bill," 2010.
  • Russell Sage Foundation, "The Labor Market and Demographic Impacts of the Legal Arizona Workers Act," 2010-2011.
  • Smith Richardson Foundation, "Lessons from California's Public Safety Realignment," 2012-2014.